The U.S. offshore wind sector entered 2020 in a nervous temper — agonizingly near changing into the subsequent massive renewables market, however not there but.
The sudden delay of Winery Wind’s 800-megawatt mission off Massachusetts final yr has left the trade in limbo. Not often within the vitality enterprise does a single mission’s consequence maintain such immense significance for a whole sector.
Winery’s plan to carry two 400 MW phases on-line in 2021-2022 meant this was to be the yr when the market lastly jumped from boardrooms and convention periods to the bodily world — onerous hats, crane vessels and all.
Then it occurred: Winery’s $2.eight billion mission was stopped in its tracks by the Bureau of Ocean Power Administration (BOEM), which determined that it wanted to conduct a “cumulative impacts evaluation” of the longer term Atlantic Coast market earlier than signing off on the mission. Some within the offshore wind enterprise questioned whether or not their luck with the Trump administration had run out.
Winery’s destiny stays up within the air: BOEM is predicted to concern its last resolution in December. A “no” from BOEM, and even additional delay, might spell bother for the market.
Even so, specialists say this has been a surprisingly good yr for U.S. offshore wind.
“Regardless of COVID-19, I believe 2020 is definitely shaping as much as be a yr the place issues get again on observe for the trade,” says Max Cohen, principal analyst at Wooden Mackenzie.
With a couple of last thrives, 2020 might be the sector’s greatest yr to this point — even when November’s election breaks for President Trump. Listed here are 5 explanation why.
1. Constructive indicators from BOEM on Winery Wind
If BOEM’s sudden cumulative impacts evaluation left the trade surprised, the report’s findings — launched in June — had been largely reassuring.
In its evaluation, BOEM didn’t give an unambiguous thumbs-up to offshore wind improvement off the Atlantic Coast. The 420-page doc finds that the trade could have myriad environmental impacts because it scales up, most of them minor however some extra vital, notably round fisheries and delivery lanes. Different impacts will probably be constructive, in areas together with coastal jobs and environmental justice.
On stability, specialists say BOEM’s findings had been an excellent signal not just for Winery but additionally for the broader trade, setting the stage for extra predictable allowing sooner or later.
“We had been affected, like Winery and others, by the pause within the federal allowing course of,” says David Hardy, president and COO of Ørsted’s U.S. offshore wind enterprise. Ørsted owns the one working industrial mission in American waters (Block Island) in addition to the biggest pipeline of future initiatives.
“Whereas it was a setback…we expect it was sensible to try the cumulative impacts,” Hardy tells GTM. There have been no massive surprises in BOEM’s findings, and “now that we’ve gone by means of it, it ought to pave the way in which for a extra secure regulatory setting going ahead.”
Hardy notes that BOEM’s evaluation assumes 22 gigawatts of capability will get inbuilt Atlantic waters within the medium time period — necessary recognition of the market’s potential. Wooden Mackenzie’s base case is 25 GW by the top of the 2020s. There are simply seven generators with a capability of 42 MW put in in U.S. waters right this moment, in comparison with greater than 20 GW in Europe.
If BOEM sticks to its subsequent deadline and offers Winery its last approval in December, the market will shortly get well any misplaced momentum, says Jason Folsom, an trade veteran who has labored for 2 main turbine producers and is now principal at Energy and the Cash, an offshore wind advisory.
Assuming no additional surprises, “these are the sorts of dents you may pop again out actually simply,” Folsom says.
2. The associated fee retains dropping
Offshore wind’s rising political help on the state stage has been essential, however on the finish of the day, the sector will sink or swim primarily based on its economics. The information there was good in 2020.
Earlier this yr it emerged that Mayflower Wind — a developer owned by Shell and EDPR — will promote energy into Massachusetts from an 804 MW mission for round $58 per megawatt-hour on a levelized foundation. That’s 13 p.c beneath Winery’s levelized value, itself a jaw-dropper when introduced in summer time 2018. Each costs embody the price of transmission. Mayflower’s mission is due on-line in 2025.
If the federal Funding Tax Credit score — the important thing subsidy for offshore wind — is allowed to section down as scheduled, it is going to hamper builders’ potential to proceed hammering away at their bid costs, not less than within the close to time period. However the U.S. trade’s potential to ship costs not too far off Europe’s ranges, and and not using a native provide chain, bodes properly for the sector’s competitiveness. Offshore wind is not an early-stage know-how, even in early-stage markets.
three. Market takes root in new geographies
Anybody who thinks offshore wind is only a southern New England factor has not been paying consideration in 2020.
The mid-Atlantic — from New York all the way down to Virginia — has emerged as not solely the biggest regional market within the U.S. however among the many largest future markets on the earth. New York and New Jersey are focusing on 16.5 GW between them by 2035. Each have confirmed plans for main offshore wind solicitations later this yr, doubtlessly leading to one other 5 GW of contracted capability by the top of 2020.
In the meantime, Dominion Power lately completed constructing its Coastal Virginia pilot, marking the primary generators ever put in in federal waters. The mission is due for commissioning later this yr. Dominion’s pilot will function the steppingstone for a deliberate 2.6 GW mission, at the moment the nation’s largest.
Blades being put in at Dominion’s two-turbine Coastal Virginia pilot. (Picture: Dominion)
Farther south, Duke Power lately instructed it could flip to a number of gigawatts of offshore wind within the Carolinas to satisfy its net-zero goal. And to the north, the College of Maine’s floating mission took an enormous step ahead this yr: Japan’s Mitsubishi and German utility RWE purchased the $100 million demonstration mission, which might get constructed as quickly as 2023.
The sight of a 10+ MW floating turbine producing energy for Mainers might provoke California to start considering extra significantly about offshore wind at a time when its onshore energy infrastructure is beneath rising menace from wildfires.
The Atlantic Coast offshore wind chessboard. (Credit score: AWEA)
four. Funding pours in, and in new methods
In distinction to the big pipeline of initiatives raring to go, there aren’t any offshore wind factories within the U.S. right this moment.
However that can change, and it’s doable that a massive manufacturing unit announcement might nonetheless are available 2020. Siemens Gamesa, the trade’s main turbine provider, has stated it’s contemplating the U.S. for the location of its first manufacturing unit to provide its new 14 MW offshore turbine, a possible game-changer for the native provide chain.
Half a dozen states are competing to host such factories, and so they’re placing severe cash behind their pitches.
New Jersey lately introduced plans for a state-backed offshore wind port alongside the Delaware River, with the purpose of luring producers. New York has tied its upcoming offshore wind solicitation to $200 million of state funding for its ports, doubtlessly remodeling websites just like the South Brooklyn Marine Terminal or Staten Island’s Arthur Kill Terminal into trade hubs.
“With New York and New Jersey each increasing their offshore wind packages, I’m assured that you simply’ll begin to see vital chunks of the provision chain being developed within the subsequent two to a few years to satisfy the upcoming demand,” says Ørsted’s Hardy.
Cash continues to movement into initiatives, too: Final month Apollo International Administration purchased a stake in developer US Wind, which owns a sophisticated mission off the coast of Maryland.
And in an necessary vote of confidence, Dominion Power introduced it is going to lead a consortium to construct the primary offshore wind set up vessel compliant with the U.S. Jones Act.
5. The presidential election
Lastly, there’s a sure date in early November to contemplate. A victory for Joe Biden might make an enormous distinction for offshore wind, even when Republicans keep management of the Senate.
In contrast to onshore wind and photo voltaic, getting initiatives permitted is a significant problem for offshore builders, and “extra top-down path from the chief department” would assist, WoodMac’s Cohen says.
“Not that initiatives would run roughshod over different stakeholders, however there might be extra streamlined allowing, extra simplified approaches and extra of a presumption that clear vitality initiatives are within the nationwide curiosity,” Cohen says.
Merely offering BOEM and different allowing companies with extra funding and assets would assist because the trade scales up, says Laura Smith Morton, head of offshore on the American Wind Power Affiliation.
Along with allowing, there’s one other space the place the federal authorities holds an uncommon quantity of sway over the trade’s progress: the supply of improvement zones, often called lease areas.
In contrast to onshore renewables, that are usually constructed on personal lands, BOEM oversees vitality improvement on the seabed past state waters, the place the most effective wind vitality websites are. In impact, it has the monopoly on new mission websites.
The trade is crying out for extra lease zones, notably within the space south of Lengthy Island often called the New York Bight. BOEM has held eight aggressive lease auctions to date, however the tempo of the auctions has slowed down; the final one was held almost two years in the past.
A Biden administration might pace issues up, doubtlessly auctioning lease areas off New York, South Carolina, California, Maine, Oregon and even Hawaii.
As a sign of what would possibly end result from a Democratic landslide in November, the Home this summer time handed the Inexperienced Act targeted on renewable infrastructure. Amongst different provisions, it will lengthen the total Funding Tax Credit score for offshore wind initiatives till the nation has three GW of put in capability, permitting builders to construct the nation’s first massive initiatives alongside essentially the most wise timeline quite than racing the clock.
Even a Trump victory in November would possible be taken in stride by the offshore wind trade, specialists say. Winery’s delay however, the Trump administration has been surprisingly supportive of the sector, particularly beneath former Inside Secretary Ryan Zinke.
“As an trade,” Folsom says, “I believe we now have the right story for the Trump administration: hard-hat jobs, American manufacturing, U.S. vitality dominance.”
Offshore wind holds substantial crossover enchantment for oil and gasoline corporations, doubtlessly serving to to additional broaden the sector’s political base within the years forward, together with with Trump’s base.
That crossover potential is not only good for fossil gasoline corporations, Folsom notes. “It represents a approach to transition oil and gasoline staff — who’ve essentially the most related expertise within the nation — into offshore wind jobs: good-paying, strong-replacement-type jobs; nonetheless in vitality, nonetheless offshore.”