After a lot Muskian fanfare, Tesla’s Battery Day revealed a smattering of enhancements to chop battery costs in half.
Tesla CEO Elon Musk insists he measures the corporate’s success by the extent to which it accelerates the arrival of sustainable vitality. Powering electrical automobiles and working a grid on renewable electrical energy requires a drastic growth of battery manufacturing. The meat of Battery Day was Musk’s step-by-step breakdown of the battery manufacturing course of to squeeze price out and lift productiveness.
All instructed, the sequence of advances will yield a 54 p.c enhance in vary, a 56 p.c lower in greenback per kilowatt-hour pack worth, and a lower in capital funding required for manufacturing.
The implementation of those enhancements will take greater than a yr, and will take three years for full realization, Musk stated.
“If we may do that immediately, we might,” Musk instructed the gang, socially distanced in Tesla automobiles like a drive-in theater. “It simply actually bodes properly for the long run.”
The transparency that the enhancements weren’t but totally in impact marked a change from previous Tesla occasions, which portrayed new merchandise as totally fashioned once they weren’t. However as a substitute of flashy product unveilings, Musk stayed true to the framing of Battery Day, delving into the particularities of cathode and anode design, lithium provide chains, and custom-cast aluminum alloy battery enclosures.
All the subject material experience provides as much as one large takeaway: cheaper electrical automobiles, and cheaper vitality storage.
“One of many issues that troubles me probably the most is that we do not but have a really reasonably priced automotive,” Musk stated. “That’s one thing that we are going to make sooner or later.”
He later added some element to that declare: Tesla will make a $25,000 electrical car in three years (and will probably be totally autonomous).
A slide from Tesla’s Battery Day exhibits how a number of focused enhancements add as much as considerably extra aggressive batteries.
Thicker cells, sooner manufacturing
The brand new period begins with a a lot thicker cell kind issue, the 4680. The brand new design eliminates tabs, rendering it “tabless,” which simplifies manufacturing and improves the power-to-weight ratio. The brand new kind issue provides 16 p.c vary in comparison with Tesla’s present battery cells, and reduces the fee per kilowatt-hour by 14 p.c.
In a break from the previous, Tesla plans to fabricate these cells in-house. Tesla constructed its automotive enterprise off a provide partnership with cell producer Panasonic. Panasonic makes cells within the Nevada Gigafactory, then Tesla takes them and turns them into extremely engineered battery packs for automobiles and stationary storage.
However Tesla is ramping up a 10 gigawatt-hour pilot manufacturing unit in Fremont for its new cell design. It should take a yr to hit full capability there, Musk famous. A full manufacturing plant would get to 200 gigawatt-hours or so.
In whole, Tesla plans to provide 100 gigawatt-hours of its personal cells in 2022, ramping to three terawatt-hours by 2030.
The shift to in-house manufacturing doesn’t spell doom for Tesla’s cell provide relationships. As an alternative, Musk stated it could be additive, in a Tweet Monday: Tesla will purchase extra cells from Panasonic and new suppliers CATL and LG Chem, and it’ll produce a bunch of its personal.
In addition to the brand new cell design, Musk described a sequence of producing course of enhancements. The corporate is eliminating the solvent addition step, which requires cumbersome equipment plus appreciable time and vitality, and changing it with a dry course of.
Tesla watchers had speculated that there could be some announcement of this sort, based mostly on Tesla’s 2019 acquisition of Maxwell Applied sciences, which was engaged on a dry electrode coating. Musk famous, although, that Maxwell had a proof of idea for dry coating, and Tesla had revised the equipment 4 instances already. “It’s near working,” he stated, making clear it was not commercially prepared but.
These reforms, plus advances in excessive pace, repeatedly shifting manufacturing machines, will enhance a single manufacturing unit line’s output by 7 instances, Musk stated.
Tesla is making headway on new anode and cathode designs as properly.
The corporate is engaged on a silicon anode, which it thinks will enhance vary 20 p.c and minimize price 5 p.c. The corporate can also be engaged on a excessive nickel cathode that eliminates cobalt, resulting in a 15 p.c discount in price.
However Tesla can also be pushing deeper into the availability chain, and re-engineering cathode and anode manufacturing to eradicate wasteful intermediate steps. The corporate will set up cathode manufacturing utilizing home lithium and nickel provides, Musk stated. In truth, Tesla secured mining rights to a 10,000 acre lithium deposit within the U.S.
A pilot recycling facility will kick off in Nevada subsequent quarter, which may result in turning outdated Tesla batteries into new Tesla batteries.
All these measures, if enacted, would streamline provide chains and will insulate Tesla from criticisms of the human prices of world lithium and cobalt mining.