Coal energy is on borrowed time. Its exit from the U.S. combine is accelerating. Within the U.Ok., information for consecutive days with none coal energy in any respect have been tumbling. Later this month, Germany will maintain a reverse public sale that may see the nation paying laborious coal mills to not function.
A brand new report by the assume tank Ember, discovered the worldwide fleet of coal energy vegetation is now operating at a utilization price of 47 %. Part-out dates for coal energy are quick approaching throughout Europe. Many of the continent’s main economies have targets this facet of 2025; Germany’s 2038 objective makes it the exception.
So the writing for coal energy itself is on the wall. However a number of the infrastructure related to the coal economic system — mines and energy stations alike — shouldn’t be so unexpectedly scuttled.
Throughout Europe, a bunch of initiatives will use coal’s legacy to contribute to the power transition. Some are nonetheless within the conceptual section, however some are fully-financed and able to scale.
All in all, coal infrastructure may but play a task not simply in energy, however warmth, power storage and carbon seize and storage.
1. From coal energy to plastic energy?
Edinburgh-headquartered SIMEC Atlantis Power, higher identified for its MeyGen tidal generator, acquired the Uskmouth coal plant in Wales again in late 2017.
The 220-megawatt energy station is to be transformed from operating off coal to burning a proprietary waste-derived gasoline developed by SIMEC Atlantis. The pellets are a mixture of paper, cardboard and unrecyclable plastic, plastic that in days passed by would both have been shipped abroad or despatched to landfill, each incurring not unsubstantial prices. Tim Cornelius, SIMEC Atlantis’ CEO, estimates that there’s adequate plastic waste of this sort to assist 1 gigawatt of energy era within the U.Ok.
Trials of the pellets and the milling course of to make them have been efficiently accomplished, and the know-how is garnering curiosity, Cornelius mentioned.
“We have had coal-fired energy station house owners from China, India, the U.S., Australia and throughout continental Europe all visiting, determined to know the outcomes of the trials,” mentioned Cornelius in an interview earlier this yr. The conversion of every 110-megawatt generator will occur one after the other. A young for EPC contractors is anticipated to conclude in Q1 2021 with monetary shut following shortly after.
2. Flooding mines for district heating
The factor about mines is they’re extremely popular. By pumping water via flooded mines, the place it warms up, you will have the bones of a district heating system. If the water temperatures aren’t that prime, you simply want to verify the end-users are shut by.
In February, the U.Ok. permitted the primary district heating scheme to make use of water from a coal mine. The Seaham Backyard Village growth is being constructed subsequent to a consuming water therapy plant owned by the federal government’s Coal Authority. The water reaches the floor at temperatures as much as 20°C and can have an output of 6 megawatts.
In whole, 1,500 properties shall be warmed by the flooded mine under.
The U.Ok. Coal Authority believes each group above Britain’s coalfields — which run from southern Scotland, via massive elements of England and into Wales — may get its house heating utilizing this methodology. That equates to 1 / 4 of all of the nation’s homes.
A smaller 2-megawatt system in Spain is already working on an identical foundation, with plans to scale it as much as 6 megawatts.
Warmth is the one largest supply of emissions within the U.Ok. With progress on decarbonizing warmth sluggish throughout Europe, and warmth networks in far too restricted a provide, distributed warmth facilities, like mines or waste warmth from industrial processes, are more likely to be utilized in larger numbers.
three. Exploring carbon seize and storage potential
Final month, teachers from Wales, Germany and Poland launched a pilot venture to inject CO2 right into a check web site in Mikołów, Poland.
The check mine, ‘Barbara’, can have a horizontal nicely drilled at a depth of 50 meters utilizing the present mineshafts to keep away from any vertical drilling. The researchers hope to enhance the amount of fuel that may be saved contained in the coal seam itself. They’ll additionally conduct a real-world atmosphere threat evaluation earlier than selecting a location for a commercial-scale venture.
“As many European areas have vital wealthy coal deposits, partnerships corresponding to this could play a pivotal position in assembly the EU’s carbon emission discount targets,” mentioned the venture’s lead, Professor Hywel Thomas in a press release.
Most European CCS initiatives give attention to pumping CO2 into the seabed within the North Sea, however that possibility is not out there throughout the continent. Giant-scale initiatives are few and much between so far, regardless of years of hype. In Might this yr, oil majors Shell, Equinor and Complete made the ultimate funding determination on the Northern Lights venture, which is able to pump CO2 into the seabed of the North Sea. It’s the first venture licensed to take action in Norwegian waters.
The ETES demonstration plant in Hamburg gives life past coal. (Credit score: Siemens Gamesa)
four. Power storage by way of scorching rocks, dropped rocks and compressed air
Higher identified for its wind generators, Siemens Gamesa would possibly appear an unlikely candidate to transform outdated coal energy vegetation. However the wind big acknowledges what longer-duration storage can do for renewables on the system, in addition to for its personal prospects.
Siemens Gamesa’s Electrical Thermal Power Storage (ETES) know-how can be utilized as a standalone nevertheless it actually comes into its personal when used as a drop-in alternative at a coal energy plant. The ETES system makes use of electrical energy and any spare waste warmth that is out there to boost the temperature of an enormous pile of volcanic rocks to temperatures past 800 levels Celsius. The warmth can generate steam for a turbine to supply energy or dispatch the warmth itself.
Hasan Özdem, head of know-how administration and initiatives for Siemens Gamesa, advised GTM earlier this yr that ETES modifications the narrative for the ability sector. “It was wind and photo voltaic versus coal and fuel energy vegetation. What we’re saying is not any: ETES may give these standard energy vegetation an area within the power future by turning them into inexperienced storage services.”
A 30 megawatt/130 megawatt-hour demonstration plant in Hamburg, Germany has already been operating for a yr. The corporate has held talks with 10 potential prospects and is able to scale a modular system up into gigawatt-hours.
There may be additionally analysis to make use of coal mines for a wide range of different power storage strategies. Flooded mines may use chambers at totally different depths to create underground pumped hydro. Gravity-based storage ideas, like Gravitricity, may make use of present mine shafts. Coal mines are additionally thought of good candidates for compressed air storage initiatives, in line with early analysis efforts.