The ultimate report on California’s rolling blackouts in August is out — and its key findings for what triggered the state’s heatwave-driven grid emergency haven’t modified a lot from preliminary findings. Merely put, the warmth waves that blanketed the U.S. West pushed electrical energy demand previous accessible provide, and issues with California’s useful resource adequacy program and market practices for making certain sufficient grid capability didn’t right the imbalance.
The steps the report lays out for state businesses, utilities and power expertise corporations to forestall one other emergency this coming summer season, in the meantime, will face a good deadline for completion by the summer season fireplace season. And a number of the state’s plans are already beneath fireplace from behind-the-meter power suppliers who say their function in serving to cease much more blackouts final summer season is being undervalued by state insurance policies.
Final week’s last “root trigger evaluation” report from the California Public Utilities Fee, the California Power Fee and state grid operator CAISO underscores the challenges confronted by a state that’s relying increasingly more on solar energy — and shutting pure gasoline and nuclear energy vegetation — to fulfill its clear power targets.
It additionally highlights the risk local weather change poses to sustaining grid reliability whereas utilizing conventional strategies to calculate the reserves wanted to maintain demand from outstripping provide. California’s utilities and group selection aggregators (CCAs) underestimated how a lot demand they would want within the midst of a record-breaking heatwave, leaving CAISO’s markets with out the day-ahead commitments to make up for sudden lack of era from pure gasoline vegetation throughout the days of the emergencies.
The ensuing supply-demand imbalances threatened to trigger a grid collapes that would develop past California to the broader grid interconnecting the U.S. West. That pressured CAISO to institute a “Stage three emergency” calling for utilities to close off grid provide for tons of of 1000’s of consumers for about an hour at a time within the evenings of Aug. 14 and 15.
The ultimate report famous that California’s useful resource adequacy assemble not solely fails to contemplate the intense temperatures the state skilled, it additionally doesn’t adequately put together assets to fill in for the “web peak” in electrical energy demand — the night hours when solar energy has pale from the grid, however electrical energy demand stays excessive.
“Our accountability and dedication going ahead is to be higher ready for excessive local weather change-induced climate occasions and different operational challenges going through our evolving energy system,” the report authors wrote.
No fast fixes to grid challenges
CAISO and the CPUC have a protracted record of steps to take to attempt to forestall the identical factor from occurring subsequent summer season. Many take care of complicated modifications to the state’s useful resource adequacy regime, which events throughout the spectrum agree depends on outdated assumptions and metrics that don’t match as we speak’s renewable energy-driven grid realities.
In November, the CPUC issued an order laying out a number of choices for provide and demand-side mitigations that would assist forestall extra emergencies in 2021. On the availability aspect, the CPUC has ordered utilities to hurry the buildout of gigawatts of power storage and solar-battery capability on monitor for completion by August, though these initiatives are already beneath very tight deadlines.
The CPUC has additionally requested utilities to look at how gas-fired energy vegetation could possibly be made extra dependable throughout heatwaves, provided that two energy plant outages had been elements within the Aug. 14 and 15 emergencies. And CAISO is contemplating increasing its procurement targets for useful resource adequacy with an eye fixed to supplying the post-solar “web peak,” in addition to bettering its understanding of the function batteries play in balancing the state’s rising share of photo voltaic era.
Utilities are getting on board with the CPUC’s fast-track efforts. “We stay up for working with the California Public Utilities Fee, California Power Fee, California Unbiased System Operator and others to handle the short-term and long-term actions the businesses define of their report back to mitigate electrical energy shortages,” PG&E spokesperson James Noonan mentioned in a ready assertion
The CEC can also be working with CPUC, CAISO and different state businesses to create a contingency plan that would shortly flip to the identical emergency mixture of assets that had been pulled collectively on an ad-hoc foundation to forestall much more rolling blackouts in August and September.
These included CAISO sending mass-market “Flex Alert” pleas to chop power use, turning on emergency era capability from factories, refineries, U.S. Navy ships and microgrids, and asking demand response suppliers and behind-the-meter battery aggregators to cut back hundreds past their market commitments.
A debate over provide vs. demand options
However to this point, the CPUC and CAISO haven’t taken up calls for from a wide selection of demand response aggregators and behind-the-meter power expertise distributors to make modifications they are saying are wanted to spice up the grid-balancing worth of sensible thermostats, solar-battery techniques, electrical car chargers and different distributed power assets (DERs).
The ultimate root trigger evaluation report shares information indicating that the state’s demand response assets failed to supply the load discount they’re being credited for delivering beneath useful resource adequacy guidelines. One of many report’s suggestions is for the CPUC and CAISO to “consider efficiency incentives and penalties for the RA fleet,” and singled out non-utility suppliers that “is probably not precisely estimating accessible capability.
However business, industrial and agricultural demand response suppliers like Enel X, CPower and Polaris Power Providers, in addition to residential DER corporations like Google Nest, Ohmconnect and Leap, argue long-running reconfiguration of California’s demand response program guidelines and market insurance policies is undercounting their grid worth. Huge issues embrace requirements that measure load reductions throughout the hottest days of the yr in opposition to baselines set when temperatures are a lot decrease, which makes it seem that houses aren’t lowering load when they’re, in addition to complicated participation necessities that may find yourself penalizing prospects even once they do their finest to chop power use, these teams say.
There’s not a lot time between now and summer season 2021 for California to do what’s wanted to keep away from extra blackouts, mentioned Jeff Hamel, head of power partnerships for Google Nest, in an interview final week.
“We’ve acquired tons of of megawatts of latent capability that we could possibly be placing to work,” he mentioned. Whereas looking for out new supply-side assets is a crucial a part of the state’s efforts, “we’re actually excited to see what comes out of the CPUC and all of the legwork that we and our companions are doing to place demand as an answer on the desk right here.”