Inside the span of every week, main utilities Iberdrola, Uniper and NextEra all made strikes into the hydrogen market, in a reminder that the miracle molecule just isn’t the only area of the oil and gasoline sector.
However whether or not utilities could have the flexibility — or want — to compete with oil firms within the rising hydrogen market stays an open query.
To this point, gigawatt-scale bulletins within the hydrogen sector have been dominated by the likes of Shell, BP and Equinor, sometimes involving plans for assembly massive sources of present, gigawatt-scale demand in industrial clusters and in some instances their very own oil refining operations. Prolonging the lifespan of multi-billion greenback gasoline infrastructure investments makes for an additional compelling incentive.
However huge utilities in Europe and North America, more and more massive actors on the worldwide vitality stage, are usually not staying on the sidelines.
Within the U.S., NextEra not too long ago introduced a 20-megawatt electrolyzer, basically designed to provide inexperienced hydrogen for self-consumption at a gas-fired plant in Florida. The $65 million pilot shall be fueled by the Sunshine State’s ample photo voltaic sources with the hydrogen blended into the feedstock for the 1.75-gigawatt Okeechobee gasoline plant. It could possibly be up and working in 2023, if regulatory approval is forthcoming.
In the meantime, German utility Uniper revealed a brand new decarbonization technique with gasoline turbine producer GE. Constructing on a inexperienced hydrogen partnership with Siemens, the 2 industrial giants will assist Uniper regularly convert its gasoline energy fleet to hydrogen, and Siemens can even work on electrolysis infrastructure for the agency.
Rounding out the current bulletins, Iberdrola revealed plans to construct a 20-megawatt electrolyzer venture for an ammonia manufacturing facility in Spain. The system will embody a 100-megawatt photo voltaic plant and a 20-megawatt-hour battery along with the electrolyzer. The €150 million ($176 million) venture is scheduled to be operational subsequent 12 months.
There is a catch, nonetheless: the venture is not going to make cash.
“Our venture just isn’t designed to generate revenue,” an Iberdrola spokesperson advised GTM. “That is an innovation venture, to check know-how, assist to drive down prices for the long run, and enhance Iberdrola’s data and expertise.”
“The drivers behind our plans listed here are that we’ve all the weather to ship an actual venture shortly,” the spokesperson wrote in an electronic mail. “We now have a keen companion, the venture will sort out present emissions, we’ve the house for tools and connections, and the placement can also be residence to the Nationwide Hydrogen Centre in Spain.”
There’ll undoubtedly be extra huge hydrogen bulletins from energy utilities, however what they do with all that hydrogen — inexperienced or in any other case — stays unclear. The economics are a great distance from stacking up, and there is nonetheless an absence of detailed coverage help to underpin early initiatives. The EU not too long ago established a goal of 40 gigawatts by 2030, however as issues at present stand there aren’t any subsidies or tenders on provide to grease the wheels of deployment.
Questions concerning the utility hydrogen mannequin
As we speak, oil and gasoline firms have higher entry to gigawatt-scale hydrogen initiatives through their very own refineries and the petrochemicals sector, which are sometimes sited collectively in clusters.
The most important inexperienced hydrogen initiatives introduced to date — from BP in Australia, Shell within the Netherlands, ACWA Energy in Saudi Arabia (the world’s largest at four gigawatts) and Equnior within the U.Okay. — have given some info on end-use, citing particular hydrogen offtakers, self-consumption, plans to export the hydrogen as ammonia, or a mixture of the above. However many particulars stay beneath wraps, and maybe unknown even to the businesses themselves.
Wanting broadly throughout the market, there’s nonetheless an absence of readability on the eventual end-users for inexperienced hydrogen, mentioned Ben Gallagher, an skilled on carbon and rising applied sciences at Wooden Mackenzie Energy & Renewables.
“Who’s going to be shopping for this hydrogen? Many initiatives have listed particular refineries or petrochemical services because the offtakers, but it surely’s not all the time clear from publicly obtainable info if it is solely for these listed offtakers or not,” Gallagher mentioned in an interview.
The lack of visibility on clients and eventual enterprise fashions is even starker for utility-led initiatives, Gallagher mentioned. Hydrogen for transport, for instance, stays very a lot a piece in progress.
Initiatives in Australia discuss exports to East Asia, whereas petrochemicals have been the main target in Europe. Within the U.S., at the very least up to now, the dialog has been dominated by mobility, Gallagher mentioned.
“I do not assume we actually know the place particular demand goes to be, and what these enterprise fashions would possibly seem like.”
Bringing prices down, and the hazard of greenwash
In the meanwhile, the economics of inexperienced hydrogen cannot compete with fossil fuel-derived options. For inexperienced hydrogen to work, electrical energy costs will want to be close to zero and electrolyzer utilization charges will have to be excessive.
Oil and gasoline companies will doubtless proceed to dominate the inexperienced hydrogen sector within the close to time period. Gallagher questions the viability of a utility mannequin primarily based on utilizing inexperienced hydrogen to mop up curtailed — i.e. free — electrical energy, because the utilization of the electrolyzer can be far too low. With out a clear sense of the enterprise mannequin, there is a hazard that early dabbling comes off as greenwash.
Iberdrola has a agency offtaker and says it expects its first inexperienced hydrogen electrolyzer to run 2,000 hours per 12 months, or about 23 % of the time, but it surely’s methods to spice up that.
Value apart, hydrogen holds a number of highly effective sights for utilities and oil and gasoline companies alike. Swapping hydrogen for pure gasoline may lengthen the lifetime of present gasoline infrastructure — whether or not by including hydrogen to the pure gasoline piped into shoppers’ properties for heating, including it to the gasoline combine at gas-fired energy crops, or switching it into industrial processes like metal making.
Uniper’s gasoline decarbonization plan, anticipated in early 2021, will reveal extra about its plans for the know-how. Uniper’s 2035 carbon-neutrality goal suggests modifications shall be greater than beauty. CEO Andreas Schierenbeck has mentioned Uniper’s hydrogen technique will open to carbon seize — that means “blue” and inexperienced hydrogen — however “clear hydrogen will, so far as it’s potential and wise, exchange the fossil elements of the gasoline crops.”
GE claims its fastest-selling fleet of gasoline generators can already run with as a lot as 50 % hydrogen, which is way more than tokenism. At that stage, it may imply a halving in emissions so long as the inexperienced hydrogen hasn’t been shipped throughout an ocean. Up to now, proposed gasoline injections for heating provides have fallen far in need of 50 % — sometimes extra like 5 or 10 %. The H100 pilot in Scotland, to generate and distribute inexperienced hydrogen for heating, remains to be awaiting approval.
Uniper is working with Siemens on the conversion of its gasoline storage services to hydrogen storage.
“If we additionally achieve utilizing our gasoline storage services to a big extent for hydrogen, we shall be nearer to an answer to the core drawback of the European vitality transformation: the shortage of storage capability for fluctuating renewable energies on an industrial scale,” mentioned Schierenbeck.
A sure set of circumstances might want to fall into place to make the case for switching from carbon-intensive hydrogen to inexperienced a compelling one, Gallagher says. Even on the scale the oil majors can attain in these early days.
In a situation the place each pure gasoline costs and carbon costs rise, and there may be authorities help in place, inexperienced hydrogen would possibly pencil out, he says. As of immediately, “the financial case remains to be not there, and it will not be for a while.”