Concentrated solar energy is dealing with its largest alternative in years with an vital new software at its disposal. As Spain considers procuring 5 gigawatts of CSP, the most important quantity ever tendered, the sector is seeking to keep away from errors with a extremely detailed best-practice information.
The Concentrating Photo voltaic Energy Finest Practices Research, printed in June by the U.S. Division of Vitality’s Nationwide Renewable Vitality Laboratory (NREL), was partially prompted by efficiency issues at vegetation similar to Crescent Dunes in Nevada. Such challenges have significantly dented confidence in CSP, at the least within the U.S., inflicting builders similar to SolarReserve to exit of enterprise.
It turns on the market’s lots that may go flawed in a big CSP mission: the NREL examine lists greater than a thousand potential failures gleaned from the working expertise of round 80 p.c of the 100 or so CSP vegetation on this planet.
Nevertheless, it’s vital to notice that “not all vegetation had points,” mentioned report co-author Hank Worth, managing director of Colorado-based consultancy Photo voltaic Dynamics, in an interview. “The thought was for those who spotlight the issues folks have run into, future tasks will be capable to deal with them.”
The excellent news is that most of the engineering challenges revealed by the examine are solvable. One downside space, for instance, is that the every day ramping up and down of the vegetation, which depend on very excessive temperatures to provide electrical energy, leads to a pressure on parts.
To take care of this, “you simply need to design programs to deal with startups and the temperature transients which might be going to happen,” Worth mentioned. “That’s not at all times the case: folks design the vegetation to function, to not begin.”
Skilled CSP plant designers and operators have discovered to pay particular consideration to issues like valves, he mentioned. However data acquisition within the sector has been hampered by the uneven growth of key markets and applied sciences.
CSP expertise features, slowly however absolutely
The primary utility-scale CSP vegetation had been constructed within the U.S. within the 1980s. That was adopted by a niche of virtually twenty years earlier than additional growth occurred, this time with a concentrate on Spain.
Spanish builders carried the expertise ahead till the federal government halted additional renewables help within the nation. That compelled Spanish firms like Sener and Acciona to look to different promising markets, similar to South Africa, which in flip fizzled out shortly.
All of the whereas, CSP expertise has been evolving. Whereas the parabolic trough idea pioneered within the U.S. stays probably the most broadly used, one other design — the facility tower — is favored for brand spanking new vegetation.
One other expertise shift has been the addition of storage into the combo. Early vegetation had no storage capability and had been solely in a position to generate vitality when the solar was shining. In the present day, in distinction, the business accepts that PV is a far cheaper choice for daytime electrical energy technology, and thermal storage is seen as important in offering a enterprise case for CSP. Spain, as an illustration, is planning to make use of all of its upcoming CSP capability to ship vitality after sunset.
The altering nature of CSP’s markets and applied sciences, together with the fierce competitors concerned in vying for a really restricted variety of tasks a yr, has made it more durable for the sector to pool data than, say, builders have been in a position to do in offshore wind. As a substitute, as groups in new markets have tried to grasp new applied sciences, particulars might have been misplaced in translation.
“We heard rather a lot about cultural [and] communication points,” mentioned examine lead creator Mark Mehos, program supervisor for CSP at NREL, in an interview. “There’s cultural points, there’s aggressive points and there’s a re-start concern: each time you go to a brand new market you may have new rivals, a few of which can not have expertise.”
The hope now’s that NREL’s examine will give all CSP gamers entry to an in depth data base, so future tasks work reliably, effectively and affordably.
The way forward for the sector could possibly be at stake: as PV and battery storage race down the associated fee curve, CSP is more and more being ignored by policymakers.
Even in Spain, the place the 5-gigawatt allocation within the nation’s proposed 2021-2030 Nationwide Vitality and Local weather Plan was seen as a nod towards main CSP gamers similar to Sener and Abengoa, there’s now concern that the framework for auctions may fit towards the expertise.
In opposition to this backdrop, CSP builders can’t afford to make errors. “You desire a developer that has expertise,” mentioned Mehos.